Increasing the angle between the cutter and work gear axes increases cutting action but, as this reduces the width of the contact zone, guiding action is sacrificed. Conversely, guiding action can be increased by reducing the angle of crossed axes, but at the expense of cutting action. At zero angle, there is no cutting. The spur and helical gears at the left in , were shaved without table reciprocation. They show the band of cutter contact less than gear face width; and also a deeper cut in the middle of the gear than on either side. The gears in the center of , were shaved with only about 114 in. table reciprocation. The profiles of these teeth are perfect over the distance of reciprocation. but they fade out at each end. The chordal thickness along this 114 in. length is less than that at the ends.